The Russian spacesuits in use aboard the International Space Station are the latest variant of the Orlan series.
Orlan is Russian for “Sea Eagle”. All Russian space- and pressure suits are named after birds. The suit worn on the Soyuz spaceship is the Sokol or “Falcon”. Other previous suits have been:
- «Стриж», Strizh or “Swift,” intended for the Buran space shuttle.
- «Ястреб», Yastreb “Hawk” and «Беркут», Berkut “Golden Eagle” suits worn on Voshkod and early Soyuz flights.
- «Кречет», Krechet or “Gerfalcon” suit intended for the Soviet Moon landing program.
Like previous Orlan versions, the Orlan-M and -MK made by the Research, Development & Production Enterprise Zvezda (НПП «Звезда»), the company which has produced all Russian spacesuits and survival equipment since it was established on 2 October 1952. They are located in Tomilino, Moscow region.
The Russian word for spacesuit is skafandr, скафандр (plural skafandry, скафандры). The “M” stands for modernized, modernizirovannyi, модернизированный. Russians don’t seem to have a formal acronym for a spacewalk (as in EVA). These terms are generally used:
- VKD, vnekabinnaya ili vnikorabel’naya deyatel’nost’, внекабинная или вникорабельная деятельность – translating roughly as out-of-cabin or -ship activity/work. (Thanks to Olaf Neumann for this)
- Vykhod v otkrytyi kosmos, выход в открытый космос – “going out into open space” (from Levan)
- Someone on the Novosti Kosmonavtiki forum suggested: ВКД (Внекорабельная Деятельность).
- “Vykhod” has also been used in the NASA On-Orbit Reports (выход, plural выходы – literally “exits”).
ESA and Zvezda had begun development work on a joint spacesuit called EVA SUIT 2000 in the early 1990s, but this was canceled late in 1994 due to financial constraints on both sides. In 1995, when the Shuttle-Mir and ISS programs were underway, Zvezda decided to modify its next batch of Orlan-DMA suits destined for Mir with various improvements. Orlan-M suits numbered 4, 5 and 6 were delivered to Mir in 1997 and used for 36 spacewalks.
Zvezda and the U.S. manufacturer of NASA’s EMU suits, Hamilton-Sundstrand have also co-operated in ISS spacesuit development. Two Orlan suits were delivered to support training in the NASA hydrolab. The Orlan was also enabled so it could be used in the U.S. joint airlock, Quest, via a portable unit called the BSS-2M, БСС-2М; it is a suit control panel (БУС, BUS) and a bundle of hoses with electric cables. Parts from the U.S. EMU spacesuits can also be used in the Orlan-M, e.g. the headlamps and drinking water supply.
A main characteristic of all Russian Orlans is the duplication of all main life-support systems. There are two fans, two pumps, two hermetically-sealed shells, two sealed glass visors, two oxygen cylinders. Even if the metallic cuirass, made from an aluminum alloy, suddenly on cracks for some reason, this is not a disaster. From inside it is covered with a rubberized fabric.
The Orlan-M is a spacesuit of the semi-rigid type, with a hard aluminium-alloy torso (cuirass) and arms and legs made of a softer material. It is an improved version of the previous spacesuit, the Orlan-DMA, taking into account the operational experiences of those using this spacesuit. It is strictly for zero-gravity use; its current design could not be used on the Moon or Mars as it is too heavy.
- The Orlan-M can accommodate a greater range of anthropometric sizes: 165 cm to 190 cm height (instead of 185 cm for the DMA) and up to 112 cm for chest diameter (instead of 108 cm). The Orlan can be adjusted to fit different wearers by lengthening or tightening straps in the arms, legs and torso (as shown in the diagram below). Maximum chest diameter is 112 cm; maximum height is 190 cm. The arms can also be removed and replaced with new ones if damaged (e.g. by a meteorite or space debris puncture).
- Radio communications have been modified so that two cosmonauts can speak and listen to each other simultaneously (which they couldn’t in the previous Orlan version).
- The metallic cuirass (the suit’s hard aluminium-alloy torso) is increased in size as are the arm and leg openings for the greater range of wearers’ heights. On the cuirass are fixtures for attachment of the USK, Cosmonaut Self-Rescue Device (УСК).
- An additional visor enhances the upper field of view and helps prevent the original one from misting up.
- A variable-length safety tether widens the cosmonaut’s area of operation.
- Improvements were also made in the ankle and pressure bearings; mobility and strength of the pressure gloves; a more reliable wrist pressure disconnect; back-up pump; snap hook for the safety tethers; fan, radio set, and the absorption capacity of the CO2 cartridge.
- The Orlan can be used in both the Pirs and U.S. Quest airlocks (the U.S. EMU can only be used in Quest).
- Some American EMU equipment, such as a 350 ml drink bag, side headlights and “Pampers” urine-absorbing garment, can also be worn.
- If a spacesuit’s serial number has a last even digit (2, 4, 6, etc.), then the spacesuit has blue stripes, if a last odd digit (1, 3, 5, etc.), then red stripes – a tradition of NPP Zvezda. (Via Anik)
From a webpage at the Made in Russia site:
Scientists pay special attention to ensuring the durability of spacesuits. A tiny particle of one tenth of one millimeter flying in outer space at 20 kilometers a second or so can break the spacesuit. Tests carried out on the Earth have proved this. In special devices tiny particles were accelerated at several kilometers an hour and were directed on a fragment of the fabric used for making the spacesuits. Particles of half millimeter in diameter broke through all the layers of the fabric easily. Though arrows of that size are unlikely to hit the cosmonaut’s spacesuit the designers have taken into account such a possibility. If the spacesuit is damaged, a special system is switched on and will maintain the required pressure inside the spacesuit during 30 to 50 minutes, depending on the size of the hole. This will make it possible for the cosmonaut to return to the station.
From ESA’s EVA Blog:
According to Gerhard Thiele, sneezing inside the EVA helmet is to be avoided at all costs “It’s a mess!” And if you get an itch, you might be able to rub up against the spacesuit, but other than that, there is not a lot you can do in an American EVA spacesuit. If however you are lucky enough to be in a Russian Orlan suit, there might be a solution. “There is a bit more room in the Orlan,” Thiele explained. “You can lean to one side and pull your arm out of the glove and sleeve. But mostly you are so concentrated during the spacewalk, that you might not even notice an itch.”
- Helmet lights were first introduced on Orlan-DM spacesuits (first use: 2 August 1985) on the Salyut-7 station. These lights had two filament lamps in each light. They were used in subsequent spacesuit versions until 22 February 2007 (Orlan-M). From then, a different type of light with 42 diode lamps in each light was used. A combination of Russian and US lights was also used on some ISS spacewalks. (Source)
The outer layer is made of Phenylon®, as described in this Nasaspaceflight.com post:
As I understand it Phenylon® is a Russian tradename for a material equivalent to Dupont’s Nomex® 0150 otherwise know to chemists as poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) or PMPI for short.
This is a high-performance polymer, with high thermal and mechanical resistance, described by Dupont as “inherently flame-resistant, high-temperature fiber that will not melt, drip or support combustion in air. It also delivers outstanding resistance to a broad range of chemicals and is offered in paper, felt, fabric and fiber forms”
The natural color of Nomex® is usually described as “off-white” or “ivory,” and many variants are classed as non-dyeable.
The Orlan operates at a pressure of 0.4 atmospheres (EMU at 0.3 atm.), enabling a pre-breathe time of only 30 minutes (in the EMU pre-breathe is 12 hours in the Joint Airlock, or 4 hours in the EMU itself). The drawback is that the higher pressure means that the Orlan is somewhat more difficult to move in.
Before climbing into the Orlan, the wearer first dons long white underwear, then the blue-colored cooling garment, which is interlaced with cooling tubes through which water flows.
The Orlan is easily donned; the user floats into it via the backpack, whose door swings open like a refrigerator’s. All essential equipment in the backpack – hermetically-sealed shell, fans, water pumps, pressure regulators, oxygen cylinder, radio, etc. – has backups/duplicates. (NASA considers its EMU’s systems completely reliable, so they are not duplicated.)
The suits must be maintained and repaired in orbit by the on-board crew with special tools; they are not returned to Earth for maintenance as there is no room in the Soyuz spaceship. The Orlan has a useful life of 4 years or up to 15 EVAs, limited by its pressure bladder which is made of natural rubber (which deteriorates over time).
The suits are usually bundled into a Progress cargo ship and burn up when the ship is undocked and enters the atmosphere. Unfortunately this means that few suits worn in orbit will make it to museums, though removable parts of the suits (gloves, visors) can be souvenired and taken back to Earth.
A new scheme is to fit the suit to be discarded with amateur radio communications equipment, push it from the ISS during a spacewalk and turn it into a “SuitSat,” an orbiting Amateur Radio transmitter! The first was “launched” on 3 February 2006 by Expedition 12, to orbit for a few weeks before atmospheric drag pulled it towards Earth.
During Expedition 14’s stay in 2006, Suit №26 developed a leak and spare parts arrived on Progress M-58: two new arms that were attached by Mikhail Tyurin on 14 November (see photo ISS014-E-07859.jpg). A new leg was brought up on M-59. This would prolong the suit’s life until December 2007 (originally set to expire in December 2006).
|Official name||Orlan-M spacesuit, «Орлан-М» скафандр|
|Description||This spacesuit of the semi-rigid type was an Orlan-DMA spacesuit modification. The Orlan-M design took into account the experience of Orlan-DMA operations on Mir and the additional requirements imposed by operations on the ISS. The suit underwent the following modifications:
Power supply, radio communication and telemetry were available for self-contained mode (from the backpack) and via the 25-m electrical umbilical from the station. Owing to the above, the service characteristics (mobility, donning/doffing, field of view, etc.) were improved. The anthropometric ranges of chest circumference and height were improved (96-112 cm and 164-190 cm, respectively). The suit was provided with attachment points for SAFER.
|Development and operation dates||Development and tests: 1995-1997. Nominal operations: 1997-up to the present|
|Quantity of manufactured spacesuits (as at 31 December 2002)||
|Nominal duration of the autonomous mode||7 hours|
|CO2 absorption cartridge operating time (with airlock time included)||9 hours|
|Suit positive pressure||
|Oxygen available (main and back-up)||1 kg each|
|Amount of O2 emergency supply, manually activated (kg hr1−1)||2|
|Cooling water available||3.6 kg|
|Assured heat removal||
|Total consumed power by the suit systems||Up to 54 W|
|Quantity of telemetry measured parameters||29|
|Spacesuit weight (wet)||~109 kg|
|Service life||Up to 15 VKDs (EVAs) over 4 years (no return to the Earth)|
(Source: Russian spacesuits.)
A new version of the Orlan, the Orlan-MK, was delivered to the ISS in September 2008 on Progress M-65 (Orlan-MK №1170004, blue stripes). Two more were delivered in 2009: Orlan №005 (red stripes) on Progress M-66, and №006 (blue stripes) on Progress M-02M. As with previous Orlans, NPO Zvezda are the designers and makers of the MK.
The MK’s main development is the replacement of the radio-telemetry equipment (BRTA, БРТА) in the Portable Life Support System backpack with a small digital computer (located in the lower – nonhermetic – part of the suit). This computer will process information from the spacesuit’s various systems and indicate malfunctions. The necessary recommendations to deal with these are displayed on a new liquid crystal display (LCD) screen on the right chest part of the spacesuit. Cosmonauts previously had to memorize contingency plans.
If there is a life-support failure, the cosmonaut will hear a buzzer alarm through his headset – prompting him to look at the digital display – and the display color will change from green to orange, recommending what course of action to take. For example, a pressure drop will be indicated on the display with the instructions to insert the injector.
The Orlan-MK can work in two modes: with the digital computer (as the MK) or without (as the previous M version). Even if the main computer malfunctions, then a special additional unit will immediately take over.
In July 2010 the color of the display units was changed:
Fyodor Yurchikhin preformed firmware upgrades to the display units on all three Orlan-MK suits. The upgrade changed the backlighting from green to orange for all display modes. Crewmember reports and ground analysis post-RS EVA-24 determined that the green backlighting interfered with display character visibility from inside the suit looking through the helmet visor while the orange backlighting did not have interference. After the upgrade activity, the crew reported it was still difficult to see the characters on the display screen—the problem appears to be a suit issue and not display related. The possibility of using Fresnel lenses was suggested as a partial interim solution for visibility as distance from the display seemed to be a factor as well.
The spacesuit is divided into two hermetically-sealed shells: primary and reserve. Even if the cuirass is cracked, this is not catastrophic as it is coated with a rubberized fabric on the inside so external microscopic cracks do not influence the airtightness of the suit.
The Orlan-MK has a water supply for a cosmonaut to drink; the 1-liter container is secured to the inside of the suit’s front, and a tube with a mouthpiece is placed near the cosmonaut’s face.
It weighs around 120 kg, is certified for 4 years in orbit and 15 EVAs.
Orlan spacesuits have generally been reliable with few anamolous incidents. The spacesuit of Aleksandr Kaleri suffered a cooling system malfunction during the ISS-8 crew’s only spacewalk. It was later established that he had accidently pinched the cooling tubes on entering the spacesuit. The spacesuit designers made changes to ensure this did not happen again.
Spacesuit testing was conducted according to 50 parameters (which cosmonauts previously had to memorize during training).
As with previous Orlans, each Orlan-MK passed special strength testing. For example, in order to verify the strength of the glass visor, a pendulum was swung at it from the distance of a meter with a lead striker on its cone. The force of impact comprised more than 100 kilograms. Furthermore, the designers bombarded the spacesuit with particles having a diameter of less than a millimeter. Exactly the same particles travel in open space with a speed of tens of km/s and are capable of damaging skin. At first all sections of a spacesuit were tested separately, then they were checked as a whole. Moreover during the tests it must maintain pressures 3 times greater than those it will actually experience in space.
More on the Orlan-MK from Novosti Kosmonavtiki news №711:
24/06/2008/20:31 On the ISS next year crews will work in open space in the new “smart” Russian spacesuit
On the ISS, where crews are now working in open space, the complete replacement of the “Orlan-M” Russian spacesuit with the more modern “Orlan-MK” is scheduled. The first Orlan-MK will be taken into orbit at the end of this year on a Progress Russian cargo ship, and in early 2009, to the International Space Station will receive two more, Sergei Pozdnyakov – general director of the “Zvezda” Scientific and industrial enterprise, where all domestic spacesuits are manufactured – said Tuesday.
The new spacesuits will gradually replace the ISS Orlan-M at the end of their life, which have faithfully “served” several crews.
The Orlan-MK is the fifth Orlan version and the first computerized Russian spacesuit, Pozdnyakov said. In the process of donning the suit, it prompts the cosmonaut for the sequence of system checks he must follow before going out in open space and reports on the status of these systems. If there are abnormal situations – for example, increased consumption of oxygen, etc. – relevant information is displayed on the signal panel, with a warning beep and instructions on what procedure to follow.
The new “intelligent” spacesuit would avoid situations like what happened during the exit of ISS Expedition 9 in June 2004. At the very beginning of EVA activities, the TsUP Mission Control Center specialists recorded an oxygen leak in Michael Fincke’s spacesuit, and the crew was forced to return to the station. The determination of the cause of the pressure drop in the Orlan took several hours, and the EVA was postponed for a few days. Now the spacesuit itself will “communicate” with the cosmonaut as to the reason for his “malaise”.
According to Pozdnyakov, ISS Expedition 18, which will be launched into orbit in October, has already trained to operate the Orlan-MK. If a cosmonaut forgets a procedure during an EVA, a special program will help him translate into the more simple Orlan-M management regime.
The new EVA suit weighs 120 kg and has a service life of 15 EVAs within 4 years of operation. In open space it protects the cosmonaut from the low barometric pressure, ionizing radiation, solar power, and micrometeorites. The system uses a high-performance thermal method of diverting the heat emitted by man through a water cooling garment. The intensity of heat removal is manually controlled by the cosmonaut by reallocating water flows coming in the heat exchanger for cooling.
- M: Модернизированни
- K: Компютеризированниы
The successor to the Orlan-MK will be the Orlan-MKS (also transliterated as Orlan-ISS), the first prototypes to appear in 2012, and to come into service by 2015. The “MKS” designation means that it has been modified, with a computer and a synthetic cover ( модифицированный, с компьютером и синтетической оболочкой).
A Roskosmos news release, 23 June 2010:
New EVA Space Suit to be Developed in Russia by 2012
New Russian EVA space suits will be developed by the end of 2011, Sergey Pozniakov, NPP Zvezda DG, told Interfax.
The suit designed under the order of the Russian Federal Space Agency are planned for use in the International Space Station.
The suits will be equipped by automatic thermal regulation systems, and rubber surface will be replaced by polyurethane, to extend life time of the suits.
The MKS will provide automatic temperature control for the microclimate inside the suit, rather than have the cosmonauts adjust this manually via the warm-cold switch.
Polyurethane will be used instead of rubber for the survival suit’s cover. Polyurethane is durable and does not tear when damaged; instead the material seals itself up. It will make the Orlan more mobile and comfortable. It will increase the spacesuit’s inflight life from 4-5 years to 6-7. At the same time the quantity of spacewalks in which it will be possible to use the new Orlan will be increased. The Orlan-M is calculated to last for 12 extravehicular activities of a duration of about 6 hours, the Orlan-MK for 15 EVAs, and the Orlan-MKS for 20 EVAs.
The latest model of the Orlan was delivered to the ISS on Progress MS-05 on 24 February 2017. One was onboard the previous Progress, MS-04 (“Russia to deliver 1st new-generation spacesuit to world’s sole orbiter in December,” TASS, 16/10/2016), but was lost along with the spacecraft due to launch failure on 1 December 2016. A third suit, the backup suit, was to be launched on MS-06. Under the safety rules on board the Station, there should be three suits: two main and one spare.
A new-generation spacesuit Orlan-ISS produced by NPP Zvezda is designed for extravehicular activity of the cosmonauts and is equipped with the automatic thermal control system. Its rubber pressure envelopes are replaced with polyurethane ones. This made their lifetime half as much again. At present no more than 15 EVAs can be performed in the Russian spacesuits, but Orlan-ISS is suitable for up to 20 EVAs. The spacesuit “brains,” i.e. the computer and operating program have been also changed. The computer tests the spacesuit by 50 parameters and displays them on the liquid-crystal display. (Energiya; NPP Zvezda)
Water cooling garment
This is a skintight bodysuit worn under the spacesuit to regulate body temperature by removing heat buildup. It is a blue-colored mesh suit woven with elastic tubes that circulate water through the suit. It is manufactured in 4 sizes. In Russian its name is: Костюм водяного охлаждения (КВО-М) – Kostyum vodyanogo okhlazhdeniya (KVO-M).
|Magnitude of heat removal||Up to 400 W|
|Total length of tubes||65 m|
|Weight (refilled)||3 kg|
Illustrations scanned from Russian Spacesuits:
- Design concept of the Orlan-M spacesuit (44 KB)
- Comparison of the Orlan-DMA (a) and Orlan-M (b) HUTs (56 KB)
- Orlan-M suit arm (without thermal protection garment) (44 KB)
- Lower torso (legs) without the thermal micrometeorite (protection) garment (66 KB)
- Orlan spacesuit material layers (18 KB)
Frank Culbertson, and Vladimir N. Dezhurov (ISS-3) wearing thermal undergarments for the Orlan. The blue cooling suit (KVO, КВО, костюм водяного охлаждения) is worn over the thermal underwear.
Orlan-MK №6 being prepared for launch on Progress M-02M, 16/4/2009
- Dave Akin’s Personal Web Site: Dissecting an Orlan wrist disconnect
- ESA Permanent Mission in Russia: “Orlan spacesuit” (Archive.org link). ESA and Russia co-operated in developing a suit called EVA SUIT 2000 in the early 1990s for use in the-then Buran, Hermes and Mir-2 projects, but financial problems saw all these canceled.
- Hamilton Sundstrand: Russian Efforts (Archive.org link)
- High-Tech Science: a privately-funded organization which promotes science and technology to U.S. schoolchildren. This section of the site features its collection of Russian and U.S. spacesuits, and related artifacts.
- My Little Space Museum: Orlan spacesuit page
- NASASpaceflight.com: posting by Anik at NASAspaceflight.com (19/8/2006 in the Current plan of launches to ISS thread)
- Novosti Kosmonavtiki: “Orlan-M for ISS,” №11, 2001
- NPO InterCoS: the Zvezda Museum page has 3 photos (1, 2, 3) of Orlan-MK №3
- NPP Zvezda: developers of the Orlan-M
- Orlan Spacesuit Training Manual (1998, 1 MB PDF)
- Popular Mechanics: Step Inside the Russian Spacesuit Factory – photo gallery
- Roskosmos news: “Baikonur: Progress M-02M Prelaunch Operations,” 16 April 2009. Photos of Orlan-MK №6 being given pre-flight testing at Baikonur before being launched on Progress M-02M.
- Roskosmos TV: ««Умный» скафандр» (“Clever spacesuit”), October 2008
- Space.com: “Orlan Overboard: The Suit Behind the Sat,” 3 February 2006.
- Spaceref: Orlan PDF operations manual (PDF, 2 MB)
- Space Travellers: Authentic Space Hardware: Orlan-M spacesuit
- VisualRIAN.com: Orlan-MK №2
- ««Орлан» над Землей» (“Orlan over the Earth”), 21 April 2012
- Zvezda: Скафандр для работы в открытом космосе “Орлан-МК” (The Orlan-MK suit for work in outer space); Костюм водяного охлаждения (КВО-М) (Water-cooling suit)
Updated 2:34 PM Thursday, 6 April 2017