ISS Russian Segment Life Support System (Star City, 1997)
Below is the text of the International Space Station Russian Segment Life Support System (LSS ISS) study guide, issued in Star City in 1997. This was a PDF document on a CD-ROM I ordered from World Spaceflight News: “Astronaut Training Manuals for the ISS”. It was scanned into PDF form as images (not OCR text), so I had to scan printouts and use a OCR to convert it to text and then HTML. The manual assumes that the crewperson reading it has knowledge of the Russian alphabet, so lots of Russian space acronyms are sprinkled liberally amongst the English text. I was too tired after doing this to try to convert them, so apologies in advance!
- Atmosphere control system
- Water supply system
- Food supply facilities
- Sanitation & hygiene equipment
- Fire detection & suppression system
- List of illustrations
The intent of this study guide is to familiarize crew members with the Russian segment life support system while training for a joint mission aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In Phase 2 of the Program, the Russian segment of the ISS will consist of the Service Module (SM), the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) and the Docking Compartment (DC).
This guide covers the principles of operation of the five main components of the life-support system: the atmosphere control system, water supply system, food supply system, sanitation equipment, fire-detection and suppression system.
Figures referenced in this document are located in Appendix A. Versions of control panels available at the date of publication are located in Appendix В.
The life-support system (СЖО) of the Russian segment of the International Space Station is comprised of:
- the atmosphere control system;
- the water supply system;
- the food supply facilities;
- the sanitation and hygiene equipment;
- fire detection and suppression equipment.
The СЖО supports the following tasks:
- supply of oxygen for crew respiration, removal of carbon dioxide and trace contaminants, maintenance of total pressure and climate control within specified limits;
- support of the crew’s dietary needs;
- support of normal personal hygiene and living conditions;
- safeguarding the station crew in case of depressurization and fire.
The living conditions within the pressurized compartments of parts of the Russian segment (Fig. A-1) must meet specific requirements. They include health standards, maximum permissible concentrations of microimpurities, and general requirements which guarantee a safe stay for the crew member. These requirements take into account the extreme demands of his or her professional activity and the need to maintain his or her health and fitness for the duration of the mission and after returning to Earth.
The parameters affecting the crew member’s activity aboard the station are grouped into the following categories:
- Atmosphere – air composition, dust level, temperature, pressure, humidity.
- Water supply – shelf life, post-regeneration quality, temperature, constraints on use in zero-gravity.
- Food supply – calorie content of the food, its quality, contents, ease of consumption.
- Sanitation system – flow rate of the commode fan, collection and storage provisions.
Basic values of parameters of the atmospheric composition of the Russian segment, taking into account the gas exchange between the human body and the environment, fall within the following limits:
- total (absolute) pressure in habitable pressurized compartments – 660-860 mm Hg;
- ppO2 of inhaled air – 150-200 mmHg
- ppCO2 – 6 mmHg, max.;
- ppH2O – 10 ± 5 mmHg;
- air temperature – 20-25°C (68-77°F);
- air circulation rate – 0.1-0.4 m/sec (0.33-1.31 ft/sec);
- noise level – 60 dB, max.;
- contaminants – within maximum permissible concentrations as determined by the ГОСТ, the Russian contaminants standard
Figure A-2 gives a diagram of the СЖО components of each module, and their locations are shown in Table 1.
|Atmosphere control system:|
|Elektron Unit||Panels 429, 430||–|
|Solid fuel oxygen generator||Panel 429||–|
|Vozdukh carbon dioxide removal system||Panels 420-424||–|
|Carbon dioxide absorber canisters||Panels 432, 436||–|
|Harmful impurities filter||–||Panel 411|
|Gas analysis system||Panel 439||Panel 405|
|Water supply system:|
|Rodnik system valves panel||Panels 233, 234||–|
|Atmospheric condensate water regeneration system (БРП)||Panel 431||–|
|Food supply facilities:|
|Food rations||Panels 238, 239||–|
|Electric food warmer||In dining table||–|
|On-board refrigerator||Panel 230||–|
|Sanitation & hygiene equipment||Toilet compartment||–|
|Fire detection and suppression system:|
|“Signal” system control panel||Panel 329||–|
|Portable fire extinguisher||Hatch РО-ПРК Hatch РО-ПХО||Panels 229, 404 and in adapter|
|Rebreather-type gas mask||Panels 416, 216||Panels 230, 404 and adapter|
3: Atmosphere control system
The atmosphere control system is designed to:
- meet the oxygen demands of the crew based an average individual daily consumption of 25 L/hr;
- remove carbon dioxide based on average individual daily output of 20 L/hr;
- remove atmospheric trace contaminants;
- monitor gas composition based on the microclimate parameters: total pressure, ppO2, ppCO2, ppH2O and ppH2;
- signal when ppCO2 and ppH2 exceed preset limits and when partial pressure of oxygen drops below the preset limit;
- signal module depressurization;
- signal when total pressure falls below the preset limit;
- equalize pressure between compartments, evacuate and pressurize airlocks;
- maintain a certain pressure differential between the working compartment and transfer chamber;
- monitor the pressure integrity of the interior of the docking codes.
Atmosphere Control System Composition:
- Oxygen supply system.
- Air purification system.
- Gas analysis system.
- Habitable compartments pressure integrity monitoring system.
- Interface pressure integrity monitoring system.
- Temperature and humidity control.
3.1. Oxygen supply system
The oxygen supply system of the Russian segment consists of the Elektron unit, two solid fuel oxygen generators (ТГК), and deliverable oxygen from the Progress cargo spacecraft.
The Elektron unit is the prime source of oxygen and operates on the principle of the electrochemical decomposition of water. The TГK and the Progress-deliverable oxygen are auxiliary sources of oxygen.
The Elektron consists of a liquid loop with 30-percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) in solution, gas lines with a pressure regulator, and electromagnetic valves (KЭ). The liquid loop is placed into a pressure-tight hull pressurised with nitrogen for safety reasons. External to the pressure-tight hull, the liquid loop is connected to a water tank (EДB), which is replaced periodically.
The liquid loop includes an electrolysis unit, two heat exchangers, a pump, and an internal water storage tank. The pump provides the circulation of the electrolyte through the electrolysis unit. The internal water storage tank acts as a membrane pump to replenish the amount of water decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen.
The pressure regulator maintains a preset pressure differential in the oxygen and hydrogen lines.
Fig. A-3 shows a diagram of the electrolysis process. Oxygen is generated in the system by the electrolysis of the water content in potassium hydroxide solution. Water is made up of 89% oxygen by weight. The reaction breaks down water into its constituents of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen is released directly into the atmosphere of the SM and the hydrogen is vented to vacuum. The electrolysis unit is made up of 12 electrolysis cells which are enclosed in a blastproof housing. The cells are cooled by the thermal control system (СТР). The decomposition of 1 kg (2.2 1bs) of water yields 25 L (0.88 ft³) of oxygen per hour at a pressure of 760 mmHg, which is enough to support one crew member for one day. To provide the daily amount of oxygen for 3-4 crew members, 3-4 kg (6.6-8.8 1bs) of water must be decomposed. Power consumption of the process is ~1 kW.
The Elektron unit is controlled by the on-board computer system. The following parameters are monitored in the process of operation: valve status, oxygen and hydrogen pressure internal to pressure hull of the Elektron, hydrogen concentration in the oxygen line, and oxygen concentration in the hydrogen line.
If the hydrogen pressure in the oxygen line reaches 2% of the total line pressure, the signal “ГА-Э сработал” (ГА-Э response to maximum value) is transmitted to the Integrated Control Panel (ИнПУ) (Fig. B1). A similar signal is generated if the oxygen pressure in the hydrogen line reaches 2% of the total line pressure.
Another signal “Проверь электрон” (Test Elektron) is transmitted to the Integrated Control Panel (ИнПУ) if any of the following conditions occur:
- temperature of the electrolyte reaches 65°C (150°F)
- oxygen pressure in line exceeds 0.65 kg/cm² (9.5 psig)
- pressure of the interim water storage tank drops below 904 mm H2O
- nitrogen pressure in the pressurized hull drops to 0.9 kg/cm² (13.3 psig)
- differential pressure between oxygen and hydrogen lines exceeds 500 mm H2O
- electrolyte is detected in the hydrogen or oxygen lines.
For either of the signals described above, the Elektron will perform an automatic shutdown.
The ТГК (Fig. A-4) consists of a replaceable cartridge with an igniter, a striker mechanism, a filter, a dust collection filter, and a fan that are located inside one case. The ТГК is designed for the thermal decomposition of an oxygen compound packaged in a cylindrical cartridge. When oxygen exits the generator, it is cooled by airflow. The oxygen generator is activated by the crew if ppO2 drops to 160 mmHg and per ground instructions. The ТГК is activated by rotating the driving handle (knob) until a specific “click” sound is heard. This sound indicates that the pin has struck the ignition device and the chemical reaction has begun.
One cartridge yields 600 L (21.2 ft³) of oxygen. The contents of the cartridge take 5-20 minutes to decompose at a reaction temperature of 450-500°C (842-932°F). Temperature of the outer surface of the ТГК may reach 50°C (122°F). If the fan is running, it takes approximately 3 hours for the cartridge to cool down.
The cartridge is replaced in the following way:
- the fan is stopped;
- the latch is opened;
- the clamping handle is turned 180°;
- the crossbar is unlatched;
- the cartridge is pulled out of the ТГК.
The cartridge replacement takes approximately 2 minutes.
A cloth dust collector is placed over the fan intake. The collector is changed when full. The ТГК fan is turned on by means of toggle switches ТГК-1, ТГК-2 on the systems power supply panel (ППС-23) (Fig. A-5, В-2).
3.2. Air Purification System
The air purification system is designed to remove carbon dioxide and gaseous trace contaminants from the atmosphere. The atmosphere purification system includes the following:
- Vozdukh carbon dioxide removal system;
- carbon dioxide absorbent canisters;
- trace contaminants control unit (БМП);
- harmful contaminants filter (ФВП).
The regenerable purification systems located in the SM, the Vozdukh and the trace contaminants control unit (БМП), are the primary means of air purification. The SM carbon dioxide absorbent canisters and the harmful contaminants filters (ФВП) of the SM and FGB provide a backup means of air purification.
3.2.1. Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System
The Vozdukh system can be divided into three parts: the preliminary purification unit (БПО), a heat exchanger unit (БT), and an atmosphere purification unit (БОА). This system consists of three molecular sieve beds, two desiccant beds, two electrical heating units, an air-to-air heat exchanger, an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, a vacuum pump, eight valves, and a fan. The desiccant material is silica gel. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere by molecular sieves, consisting of Zeolite, a solid porous adsorbent material. The operation of the molecular sieves is based on capillary action. CO2 adsorbtion efficiency depends on the air flowrate, sorbtion and desorbtion cycle duration and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Once saturated, the Zeolite is regenerated by exposing the bed to vacuum.
Fig. A-6 shows a diagram of the air purification process. The diagram reflects the mode of operation when the molecular sieve bed (ПП-1) is adsorbing carbon dioxide, the molecular sieve bed (ПП-2) is being regenerated, and the molecular sieve bed (ПП-3) is inactive. The electric heater (ЭН-2) is on and the valves are in the following positions:
- the two-position valve (ПKO) is in position 1;
- the multipositional valve (БВК-1) is in position “С” for adsorption;
- the multipositional valve (БВК-2) is in position “Р” for regeneration;
- the multipositional valve (БВК-3) is in position “3” for closed;
- the two-position vacuum valves (АВК-1 and АВК-3) are in the closed position;
- the two-position vacuum valves (АВК-2 and ABK-CОA) are in the open position.
The fan draws in air and forces it through the desiccant bed (ОС-1). The air must first be dehumidified because the Zeolite in the molecular sieve bed preferentially adsorbs water. Moisture absorption by silica-gel is an exothermic process, generating a bed temperature of 30-50°C (86-120°F). The heat radiated by this process is removed by the thermal control system (СТР). The dry air then flows through the inactive electric heater (ЭН-1) the two-position valve (HKO), the heat exchanger unit (БТ), the flow meter (ВИР), a filter (Ф), fan (В), the multipositonal valve (БВК-1), and on to the molecular sieve bed (ПП-1) where carbon dioxide is adsorbed. The dry air minus the carbon dioxide then exits the molecular sieve bed (ПП-1) through the multipositional valve (БBK-l). The air continues on through a filter (Ф), the air-to-air heat exchanger (ГГТ), the two-position valve (ПКО), the active electric heater (ЭН-2), and to the desiccant bed (ОС-2). The air is heated to 70-90°C (160-195°F).
Regeneration of the silica-gel occurs when the hot, dry air vaporizes the water stored in the desiccant bed (ОС-2). This process humidifies and cools the air which is then returned into the atmosphere of the SM.
The CO2-saturated zeolite (ПП-2) is regenerated by exposing the bed to vacuum via valve (БBK-2) while vacuum valves (АВК-2 and АВК-СОА) are open. The pressure differential causes the zeolite to release the adsorbed carbon dioxide, thereby regenerating it. Prior to regenerating the molecular sieve bed (ПП-2), the БВК-2 valve is first placed in the “П” position to allow for the transfer of air from ПП-2 to ПП-1. Then the valve is reconfigured to the “О” position for pumping the air out of ПП-2 and into the cabin. After the air has been pumped out by the vacuum pump, the valve (БВК-2) is placed in the “Р” position for regeneration.
The third molecular sieve bed (ПП-3) is used as a reserve. It is commanded into operation when there are two crews present on the Russian segment. When all three molecular sieve beds are in operation, the ПП-1 and ПП-2 beds operate in the same phase (adsorption or desorption) white the ПП-3 bed operates in the alternate phase. For example, when the ПП-1 and ПП-2 beds are adsorbing carbon dioxide, bed ПП-3 is regenerating.
Valve position is monitored by watching the letters on the indicator windows on the face of the actual valves. Valve status can also be monitored by observing the status of the indicator lights on the Vozdukh system control panel (ПУCOA) (Fig. A-6a). In the event of a failure of any of the following components – the vacuum pump, fan, valves (БВК-1, БВК-2, БВК-3, ПКО), flow meter (BИP), and overheating of the preliminary purification unit (БПО) – the corresponding indicator light on the Vozdukh system control panel (ПУCOA) will turn on. The integrated control panel (Fig. В-1) receives a signal to switch on the “Проверь СОА” (Check atmosphere purification system) indicator light. The command to close all vacuum valves is sent from this panel.
The Vozdukh can operate in one of two modes: automatic and manual. In automatic mode, the desired control level for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (in mmHg) is set by manually positioning the ppCO2 setpoint switch “Давпение CO2”. The remaining switches are set to the automatic position “ABT”. Two carbon dioxide partial pressure sensors located on either side of the adsorbing molecular sieve bed send readings to the on-board computer system. The on-board computer system uses this information to calculate the carbon dioxide adsorption level of the bed. The computer also receives the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, as measured by the gas analyzer. Based upon the calculated adsorption level and the atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide, the on-board computer system selects the adsorption (desorption) cycle duration and makes adjustments to the fan speed.
In the manual mode of operation, the switches can be set by the crew members to the desired values. In the manual mode of operation, the system maintains the parameters set by the switches on the Vozdukh system control panel (ПУСОА) (i.e. no closed-loop control).
The post-maintenance tests of the system’s components are performed using the Vozdukh system test panel (ППСОА) shown in Fig. A-6b. The tests include: continuity of electrical circuits for heaters ЭН-1, 2 and operation of the desiccant bed heat relays, pressure relay in the vacuum pump pipelines, serviceability of the fan motors, two-position valves of desiccant units, the vacuum pump, and valves БВК and АВК.
Electrical connectors are tested by depressing the “Коктр. стык” (All connectors mated) button and monitoring the LED above the button. Continuity of the ЭН-1 and ЭН-2 circuits is tested by depressing the “KOHTF. НАГРЕВ” (Heater circuits) button and monitoring LEDs С1, С2, С3 and С4. Transmission of signals from heat relays of the desiccant units is tested by switching the PTI and РТ2 toggle switches, which simulate their operation, and monitoring the “ПЕРЕГРЕВ BПO” (Overheat БПО) light indicator on the ПУCOA panel.
Serviceability of electrical motors of the fan, ПКО, vacuum pump and БВК valves is tested by fault simulation and the automatic devices response switching light indicators on the ПУСОА panel ON or OFF.
Opening of the emergency vacuum valves АВК-1, 2 and 3 is tested by depressing the “ПУСК” (Vacuum valve initialize) button on the ППСОА panel and monitoring light indicators “АВК-1 ЗАКРЫТ” (АВК-1 close), “АВК-2 ЗАКРЫТ” (АВК-2 close), and “АВК-3 ЗАКРЫТ” (АВК-3 close) on the ПУСОА panel. These indicators should turn off which should go OFF. In this case air leakage from ПП-1, 2, and 3 beds through the open valve АВК-СОА will be prevented by the closed valves БВК-1, 2 and 3. Position of the valves is checked by monitoring light indicators on the ПУСОА panel.
3.2.2. Carbon dioxide absorbent canisters
The lithium oxide-based carbon dioxide absorbent canisters of the SM provide a backup means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of habitable compartments. The CO2-removal capacity of one canister is 1600 L (56.5 ft²). On average, one crew member produces 480 L (17 ft³) of carbon dioxide per day.
Fans for the absorbent canisters (Fig. A-7) are controlled by toggle switches “ВП-1” and “ВП-2” on the systems power supply panel (ППС-23, Fig. В-2). Before turning the fan on, the ducting must first be attached from the fan to the canister intake connection and the foil cap must be removed from the canister and discarded. After 2.5 hours of use, the temperature at the opening of the canister must be checked. The crew shall perform this check manually. Absorbent canisters are stowed on-board the SM and are numbered. They must be used only in sequential order. The CO2 absorbers will be used when two crews are on board at the same time. While the Vozdukh system is operating, the CO2 absorber is activated to provide a higher rate of carbon dioxide removal.
3.2.3. Trace Contaminants Control Unit
Trace contaminants are removed from the atmosphere using the trace contaminants control unit (БМП). The БМП (Fig. A-8) consists of following main components: two regenerable activated-charcoal cartridges, a cartridge containing a catalytic oxidizer, a filter, a fan, and valves. Atmosphere purification can be performed in one of two modes of operation: by using both charcoal cartridges simultaneously or by using only one cartridge at a time. The crew member may select the mode by manually positioning the valves as described in the paragraphs below.
When purifying air using two cartridges, valve АВК-БМП is closed. The fan draws SM cabin air through the filter, valves БКВФ-1 and БКВФ-2 and the activated charcoal cartridges, and then through valves АВК-4 and ABК-5 and the catalyst. The charcoal beds adsorb high molecular weight trace contaminants. The catalyst oxidizes carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and the hydrogen to water.
To configure the system for regeneration in the dual cartridge mode, the valves must be manually reconfigured as follows. The activated charcoal is regenerated with valves БВКФ-1 and БВКФ-2 in the closed position and valves АВК-4 and ABК-5 properly repositioned to allow exposure of the charcoal cartridges to vacuum through valve АВК-БМП. The cartridges must be regenerated every 20 days for a 12-hour period. During regeneration, the cartridges are heated to 200°C (390°F).
The БМП may also operate in a different mode. When one charcoal cartridge is regenerated the other adsorbs trace contaminants. The valves must be manually repositioned to support this configuration. Other components of the БМП (fan, heaters, etc.) are activated on from the trace contaminant control unit panel (ПУ БМП).
3.2.4. Harmful Impurities Filter
The harmful impurities filter (ФВП) absorbs harmful gases (acetone, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, etc.) from the atmosphere. It is installed in the FGB behind panel 411. The filter (Fig. A-9) is made up of two parts: a replaceable cartridge containing a chemical sorbent and activated charcoal, and a permanent catalyst (for oxidizing CO to CO2).
The ФВП саn be activated via ground commands. It is activated prior to arrival of the first 1SS crew and continues operating until the SM СОГС is activated. After that it will be used to purify the SM atmosphere in the event of an off-nominal situation.
3.3. Gas Analysis System
The gas analysis system of the Russian Segment is designed to provide continuous monitoring of partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and hydrogen content in the atmosphere of habitable compartments, and to send alarm signal to the caution and warning annunciation panel (ПСС) shown in Fig. В-3.
There are two gas analysis systems aboard the Russian segment: the SM gas analyzer and the FGB gas analyzer. The SM gas analyzer (Fig. A-10) includes the following components:
- electrochemical oxygen sensor;
- thermal conductivity sensor for measuring carbon dioxide partial pressure (Wheatstone bridge);
- electrolytic sensor included in the Wheatstone bridge for measuring water vapor partial pressure;
- thermal conductivity sensor for measuring hydrogen content in the atmosphere (Wheatstone bridge);
- absorbent filter unit;
- flow meter;
All components of the gas analyzer are mounted on one board. The gas analyzer is turned on by the crew using the onboard computer system (БBC) or by the uplink command from the MCC (РУП-М).
The SМ gas analyzer operates continuously and is turned off by the crew only for maintenance and repair. The gas analyzers’ parameters are sent to the onboard computer display.
The gas analyzer provides parameter measurements within the following ranges:
- oxygen partial pressure: 0-350 mm Hg;
- carbon dioxide partial pressure: 0-25 mm Hg;
- water vapor partial pressure: 0-30 mm Hg;
- hydrogen content in the atmosphere: 0-2.5%.
A warning signal is sent to the ПCC panel (a yellow light indicator “АТМ. КОНД.” is activated when:
- CO2 partial pressure increases to 10 mm Hg;
- O2 partial pressure drops below 130 mm Hg;
- O2 partial pressure exceeds 190 mm Hg.
An alarm signal is sent to the ПCC panel (a red indicator light “ATM,” “SM” and audio alarm go ON) when:
- CO2 partial pressure exceeds 15 mm Hg;
- hydrogen content in the atmosphere exceeds 1%;
- O2 partial pressure drops below 124 mm Hg.
The FGB gas analyzer (Fig. A-11) provides continuous and simultaneous measurement of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor content in the atmosphere within the following ranges:
- oxygen partial pressure: 0-350 mm Hg;
- carbon dioxide partial pressure: 0-25 mm Hg;
- water vapor partial pressure: 0-30 mm Hg.
The gas analyzer includes the following components:
- electrochemical oxygen content sensor;
- thermal conductivity sensor for measuring carbon dioxide partial pressure (Wheatstone bridge);
- electrolytic sensor for measuring water vapor partial pressure;
- absorbent filter unit;
All components of the gas analyzer, except the humidity measurement sensor, are located inside one case. The air is fed to the O2 and CO2 sensors by a microfan. The gas analyzer measures O2, CO2 and H2O partial pressures and transmits their values to the ground and on-board displays.
Alarm signals are sent if the oxygen content is below 120 mm Hg or the carbon dioxide partial pressure exceeds 20 mm Hg.
The gas analyzer is activated by an uplink command 2 days prior to arrival of the first ISS crew and continues operating until the SM gas analyzer is activated. After that it will only by activated when needed. The gas analyzer is activated by crew from the command panel.
The gas analyzer is installed behind panel 405.
The habitable compartments pressure integrity monitoring devices include: the total pressure measurement sensors, onboard computer system which processes data from the sensors, and the caution and warning annunciation panel.
The total pressure in the Russian segment’s habitable compartments is measured by three induction type sensors (ДДИ). The sensors are powered by the switch ДДИ-1 an the systems power supply panel ППС-22 (Fig. В-4) and their signals are transmitted to the БВС. The sensors operate within the pressure range of 400-960 mm Hg. The total pressure measurement diagram is shown in Fig. A-12.
The onboard computer system periodically reads sensor data to compute the rate of total pressure drop in the habitable compartments.
If the pressure drop rate is low, a warning signal is transmitted to the caution and warning panel, activating the yellow indicator light “ДАВЛ. АТМ.”. At high pressure drop rate the БВС transmits an alarm signal to activate the red indicator light “ΔPΔT” and audio alarm (Fig. В-3).
3.5. Interface Pressure Integrity Monitors
Composition (based on the number of docking nodes):
- pressure equalization valves (КВД);
- tunnel pressure monitoring valves (ККТ);
- vacuum manometer.
The pressure equalization valves (КВД) are used to pressurize the large chamber of the docking nodes during a pressure integrity cheek and during subsequent equalization of pressure between docking modules. The КВД are installed on the interface pressure integrity monitoring system’s panels and on the pressurized bulkheads. The КВД are electric motor-driven valves with manual overrides and dual seals (positions: “OTKP.” [OPEN], “ЭЛ.УПР.” [ELEC.OPER.], “ЗАКР.” [CLOSE]). In flight the control handle of the КВД is set to “ЗЛ.УПР.” (ELEC.OPER.) when the docking nodes are occupied and to “ЗАКР.” (CLOSE) when they are free. Position of the valves is checked by monitoring the LSS indicator lights on the Integrated Control Panel.
The tunnel pressure monitoring valve (ККТ) hooks up the vacuum manometer to the chamber of the docking node to be tested and to the tunnel chamber during a pressure integrity check.
The ККТ is manually controlled by a two-position handle: “ЗАКР.” (CLOSE) and “ОТКР.” (OPEN). The cap on the valve nozzle must be removed before connecting the vacuum manometer. Upon completion of the pressure integrity check, the vacuum manometer must be disconnected and the valve nozzle must be recapped. An example of tunnel pressure integrity monitoring is shown in Figure A-13.
The vacuum manometer is a mechanical aneroid instrument which measures total pressure in the habitable compartments. It is a portable unit with two dials with measurement ranges 0-460 mmHg and 470-960 mmHg. It has a range indicator to ensure a proper reading, and a mirror scale to ensure an accurate reading. Instrument error is ± 2 mmHg.
3.6. Temperature and Humidity Control
Details for components that support temperature and humidity control are provided in the ISS Russian segment thermal control system (СТР) training manual. A brief summary is provided below.
The atmosphere control elements of the Russian segment provide the pressurized modules with an atmospheric pressure equal to that at sea level. The atmosphere control equipment maintain the composition at the required percentages of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21-40%) through the use of gas flow regulators, manual controls, and partial pressure of cabin oxygen.
Atmosphere temperature and humidity control is provided by the use of liquid-air heat exchangers. The air is cooled and heated by two internal loops of the thermal control system (СТР). Temperature control of these loops is automatic. The ventilation equipment of the SM circulates the air to continuously stir up the atmosphere since natural convection does not occur in zero gravity conditions. Ventilation also prevents the formation of stagnant pockets of carbon dioxide. Gas exchange between the SM Docking Compartment and FGB is supported by fans which force air through the ducts.
An acceptable level of air moisture content is maintained by removing 1.2 L (0.04 ft³) of water produced by each crew member per day.
4: Water supply system
The water supply system is designed for:
- storage, supply and convenient consumption of potable water in zero gravity conditions;
- regeneration of condensate to meet the crew’s water needs for drinking and food preparation;
- providing each crewmember with 2-5 L (0.07-0.18 ft³) of water per day for personal hygiene.
The water supply system of the Russian segment (Fig. A-14) is based on two different principles: water delivery by space vehicles and regenerating water from atmospheric condensate.
4.1. Water Reserves
The water delivered by the Progress module is pumped into the Rodnik system on the SM.
The SM Rodnik system is intended to provide the crew with potable water. The system consists up of two water tanks БВ-1 and БВ-2, the Rodnik status panel (ИКР), and a pumping unit.
Each tank has a volume of 210 L (7.4 ft³). Silver ion concentration in the water is 0.5 mg/L (2.8 × 10−5lb ft³). Shelf life of this water is 3 years. Water for crew consumption is pumped from the Rodnik tank into the water storage containers (ЕДВ) on-board the SM. Water is pumped into the soft bladder of the ЕДВ, which is contained within a hard aluminium shell. The pump takes 35 minutes or less to refill a ЕДВ. Fig. A-15, A-15a show the diagram of the ЕДВ filling process.
Тo refill a water container:
- assemble the system;
- open the manual shutoff valves KB-1 and KH-1 on the Rodnik system valves panel;
- turn on the “ПУЛЬТ” (PANEL PWR) toggle switch on the Rodnik status panel (ИКР);
- check the LEDs “НАДДУВ” (AIR PRESS) and “ВОДА” (WATER) on the Rodnik status panel (ИКР);
- turn on the pumping unit toggle switch” БЛОК ПЕРЕКАЧКИ” (PMP UNIT) on the Rodnik status panel (HKP).
The ЕДВ is filled until a red mark appears on its preset filling indicator, at which point the water must shut off and the system must be returned to its initial state. The volume of each ЕДВ container is 21 L (0.74 ft³). Shelf life of the water stored in the ЕДВ container is 365 days.
Water is dispensed from the ЕДВ (Fig. A-16) by using the hand pump. To create a region of positive pressure, 50.6 kPa (7.l lbf/ft²), around the soft inner bladder. Maximum pressure is limited by a pressure relief valve located on the air hose. If pressure rises above 50.6 kPa (7.1 lbf/ft²), the valve opens to relieve pressure.
The water is consumed via a dispenser equipped with a personal mouthpiece. Water flow is adjusted by pressing the dispenser’s feed-control valve button.
4.2. Atmospheric Condensate Water Regeneration System
The atmospheric condensate water regeneration system generates potable-grade water. It is intended to accept the gas-liquid mixture from the thermal control system (СТР), to separate the gas and liquid, to purify and condition the recovered liquid to potable water quality, and to dispense hot and cold drinking water to the crew. Fig. A-17 shows the diagram of flow through the condensate water regeneration system.
Atmospheric moisture formed in the habitable compartment of the Russian segment is collected as it condenses on the cold surfaces of the TCS heat exchangers. TCS feeds the air-water mixture to the condensate water regeneration system to be processed into potable water.
The water purification process occurs in the following way. After passing through the filters ФГЖС and ФР, the air-water mixture is routed to manual valves КЛ1 and КЛ3. Manual valve КЛ1 must be opened to route the water to the water separator. After the humidity is removed, the air is routed back into the cabin. The water is pumped out of the separator by a diaphragm pump (МН). The pump fills with water until the contacts of ВК-2 close. When the contacts of ВК-2 close, power is provided to the condensate water quality sensor (СПП) and a signal is given to open the electrical valve (КЭ-1) and to start the pump motor (Н1). The Н1 pump then routes the water from the diaphragm pump to the purification column unit (БКО). Water is purified from harmful contaminants by passing it through columns filled with ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal. At the outlet of the purification column unit (БКО), there is a quality sensor (СПП) that measures the electrical conductivity of t he water. If the sensor does not respond, the water is assumed to be free of contaminants. In this case the water is sent through the open electromagnetic valves (ЭМК-3, 4) into the conditioning columns (БKB) to be saturated with salts and silver ions. From the conditioning columns (БКВ), the water is fed through an open manual valves (РЗК-1, РЗК-4) into the potable water container (КПВ) and on to the distribution and heating unit (БРП).
If the electrical conductivity measured by the quality sensor (CПП) decreases below a preset value, the sensor responds. It sends a command to close the electromagnetic valves (ЭМК-3, 4) and lights the “Вода некачеств” (LOW QUAL) indicator light on the condensate water processor panel (ПУРВ-К). The water pressure increases because the water is no longer being pumped into the potable water container (КПВ) since the ЭМК-3, 4 valves are closed. When the pressure is high enough, the pressure relief valve (ПК) cracks and water is routed into the nonpotable water containers (КТВ) through the manual valve РЗК-2 or РЗК-3.
The condensate water regeneration system operates continuously. Average daily output of regenerated water is 1.2-1.3 L (0.042-4.046 ft³) per crew member. The water can be heated in cycles or continuously by the БРП heater. In the cyclic heating mode. 650 mL (0.02 ft³) portions of water are heated at a time. It takes 45-60 minutes to heat the first 650 ml (0.02 ft³) of water to 83°C (181°F). The heater automatically shuts off when the water reaches this temperature. The cyclic heating mode is initiated by turning on the “Раздача и подогрев воды” (H2O DIST & HEAT) switch and by pressing the “Подогрев воды Вкл” (Н2O Heater On) button located on the condensate water processor panel (ПУРВ-К) (Fig. A-17a). The same button may be pressed again to heat another 650 mL (0.02 ft³) portion of water.
The continuous heating mode is initiated by first turning on the “Раздача н подогрев воды” (Н2O DIST & HEAT) switch “Подогрев ВОДЫ ВКЛ.” and then turning on the continuous heating toggle switch “Подогрев непрер.” (CONT HEAT). Temperature of the hot water is automatically maintained in the range 72-83°C (162-181°F) until a shutoff command “Подотрев непрер.” (CONT HEAT) is issued from the condensate water processor panel (ПУРВ-К).
The crew receives hot and cold water from the distribution and heating unit. The water from the condensate water regeneration system can be used for drinking, reconstituting freeze-dried foods, preparing juice drinks, coffee, tea, and for personal hygiene.
The water is accessed through the hot “Гор” and cold “Хол” dispenser valves of the БРП heating unit. American adapters are available to dispense the water into American food container bags with freeze-dried foods. This adapter can also be used to dispense water into the American 200 mL drinking bags. To dispense a measured quantity of water, the desired amount, from 25 to 200 mL is selected by positioning the “Порция воды в мл” (H2O QTY mL) switch and depressing the “Подача воды, ВКЛ” (H2O DSPR PMP) button, which turns on the main pump of the distribution and heating unit (ВРП). Before filling a pouch, the top of the package must be cut along the colored dotted line. Preparation instructions for freeze-dried foods are printed on the package.
Condensate water processor panel (ПУРВ-К) alarms and crew responses:
1. Indicator light “Ресурс 1 (2) выработан” (SEP 1  EXP) lights up when the life of the water separator unit is depleted or when the pump fails.
- turn off audio alarm “Test СРВ-К” (“Пров. СРВ-К”) at integration control panel (Fig. B-1);
- close manual shut-off valve КЛ-1 (КЛ-3);
- notify the ground of the failure.
2. The indicator light “Вода некачеств” (LOW QUAL) lights up when the nonpotable water from the purification column unit (БКО) has entered the system.
In this case, the electrovalves (ЭМК-3,4) automatically close to prevent the entry of nonpotable water into the potable water container (КПВ).
Crew responses – continue using water from the potable water container (КПВ).
5: Food supply facilities
The food supply facilities are designed for the storage, preparation and consumption of food, as well as for collection and storage of food waste. All Russian segment food supply facilities are located in the SM.
5.1. Food ration
The food ration is an array of foods which is designed to satisfy the daily caloric needs of one crew member.
The dietary regimen provides four daily meals (breakfast, snack, lunch, dinner) with a total caloric value of approximately 3000 kcal/day.
The food is stored in containers at ambient temperature, or in the on board refrigerator. Guaranteed shelf life under these conditions is 240 days.
The array of utensils for opening the packages and consuming the foods include a can-opener, fork, spoon, scissors, and tube opener (“Handbell”).
Dehydrated (freeze-dried) foods are reconstituted with hot (72-83°C) (162-181°F) or cold (10-45°C) (50-113°F) water from the condensate water regeneration system. Water is added directly into the special pouches of portion-controlled freeze-dried food. The amount of water and reconstitution time are printed on each label.
Food in tubes and canned meat and fish are opened with special utensils. The outside and inside wrappings on confections and pastries, fruit-berry concentrates, and bread are opened by tearing along the marked lines. Foods in cans and bread are warmed to 65°C (149°F) in the electric food warmer prior to consumption.
Foods must not be consumed when:
- past the expiration date;
- packages, cans, and tubes are swollen;
- packages show signs of mould, corrosion, or leakage.
Foods must not be rewarmed.
5.2. Electric Food Warmer
The electric food warmer (ЭПП) is designed to heat foods in cans, and plastic pouches.
The ЭПП (Fig. A-18) consists of a heater, an automated unit, and a control panel. The warmer contains a number of cells for heating food. The heating elements inside the cells conform to the shape of the various packages.
The Service Module has two food warmers, “Подогреватель пищи 1,” “Подогреватель пищи 2” (Food warming 1, Food warming 2), connected to onboard outlets. The foods are warmed to 65°C (149°F) within 30 minutes. The food warmer operates automatically. The foods are inserted into the warmer to the maximum depth of the cells. Any combination of foods may be warmed – from one meal ration (can, bread) to four.
Bread must first be removed from its outer plastic bag before warming it. To prevent a spill when opening cans, a sterile gauze napkin must first be placed over the site of the initial puncture.
Cans should be inserted into the cells with the high rim aimed toward the moveable heating elements and be held in place with the hand before closing the door of the warmer. The cans are opened with the can-opener so that the lids remain attached to the can.
Procedure for heating foods in the ЭПП:
- load the cells with food and close the door;
- set the “Режим” (Моде) dial on the proper temperature 65°C (169°F);
- press on the “Пуск” (Start) push-button (the “Сеть” [Power] and “Контроль нагрева” [Heating Control] LEDs will light up) on the electric food warmer (ЭПП) control panel.
Thirty minutes later the “Готов 65” (Ready 65) LED lights up, indicating that the heating cycle is finished. Turn off the heater with the “ОТКЛ.” (OFF) button and verify that the “Сеть” (Power), “Готов 65” (Ready 65), and “Контроль нагрева” (Heating Control) LEDs turn off. Open the door and carefully remove the foods with the utensil.
5.3. On-board Refrigerator
The refrigerator (Fig. A-19) is designed for food storage at temperatures ranging from −5 to +10°C (23-50°F) with 2°C (1.1°F) setting increments. The refrigerator is connected to the SM on-board outlet.
It takes 4 hours for the unit to reach thermostatic control mode. The station’s onboard refrigerator operates continuously in automatic mode.
Routine maintenance of the refrigerator is performed once every two months. The contents of the refrigerator are removed and the door is left open while the system is placed in the drying mode. The refrigerator takes approximately six hours to dry out.
Temperature inside the refrigerator is set by means of the dial switch labelled “Установка °C” (Setting °C) on a panel located on the refrigerator itself. The “Датчик-основной-резервный” (Main/Backup sensor) toggle switch is used to switch the main temperature sensing element to the backup in case of malfunction.
The fan which uniformly distributes the streams of cold air inside the chest, operates when the refrigerator door is closed and the power supply is on. The fan which provides cooling for the thermobattery runs continuously.
6: Sanitation & hygiene equipment
The sanitation and hygiene equipment (СГО) is designed to collect and preserve (crew metabolic waste, collect and store other solid waste), and collect the water used in the hand-wash. The sanitation and hygiene equipment is located in the SM and consists of the commode, urinal, and hand-wash.
As shown in Figure A-20 the major components of the sanitation and hygiene equipment are the:
- solid waste container;
- urine collector;
- chemical pretreat pump;
- conserving agent (sulphuric acid) tank;
- flush water pump;
- dynamic gas-liquid separator;
- urine container;
- urine/water storage container;
- odor absorbtion filter;
- waste management/hand-wash control panel;
- hand-operated pump;
- water storage container (ЕДВ);
- washing chamber.
Associated with the commode is a fan which draws air in from an opening on the commode seat, routes this air through the a portion of the waste collection system, and then sends it back into the habitation compartment. This air flow draws the solid waste into a porous bag located inside the solid waste container, while the air and liquid wastes are pulled into the urine/water storage container. When opened, the urine collector valve (PK) activates the separator, fan, chemical pretreat and water pumps. When closed, the PK turns off the fan and pumps, but the separator continues operating for 30 seconds. After use, the porous bag with solid metabolic waste is removed and disposed of in the solid waste container.
The urine is drawn into the funnel by the same means of air flow. It combines with air, sulfuric acid, and water from the ЕДВ and hand-wash. Then it is drawn into the dynamic gas-liquid separator where this mixture is separated into liquid and gaseous phases. The liquids are routed to a separate urine container. The airflow with a small amount of liquid goes from the separator into the urine/water storage receptacle. A porous substance within the receptacle collects the moisture from the air flow. The air is then routed from the urine receptacle through an odor absorption air filter, and then is sent into the habitation compartment.
In passing from the dynamic gas-liquid separator to the urine container, the urine passes through an electromagnetic valve (КЭ-dosage). The status of the electromagnetic valve (КЭ-dosage) is monitored by the indicator light “КЭ дозатора открыт” (КЭ – dosage open) on the waste management/handwash control panel. The operation of the chemical pretreat pump and the separator is monitored by the indicator lights “дозатор” (Dosage) and “Разделит.” (Separator). In the event of a failure of the chemical pretreat pump or the separator, indicator lights “Проверь дозатор” (Verify dosage) and “Проверь разделит.” (Verify separator) turn on.
The off-nominal situations are indicated by the following indicators lights: “Консерв. некачеств.” (Poor quality cons. agent), “Нет смывной воды” (No flush water), “Проверь дозатор” (Verify dosage), “Проверь разделит.” (Verify separator). Indicators are reset by switching the toggle switch “Ручн. управ.” (Manual control) ON and depressing the “Привед. в иcx.” (Actuation initial condition) button.
When using the АСУ, the amount of flush water and chemical pretreat is changed by the “Доза” (Dosage) toggle switch.
The chemical pretreat sensor activates the indicator lights “Консерв. некачеств.” (Poor quality cons. agent) on the waste management/hand-wash control panel (АСУ) when the chemical pretreat tank is low or empty.
In the event that the flush water for the commode is not present, the system responds by lighting the “Нет смывной воды” (No flush water indicator) from the sensor ΔP1. When the urine container is overfilled, the ΔР2 sensor sends a signal to the waste management/hand-wash control panel (АСУ) to switch on the “Емк. урины заполнена” (Urine container filled) indicator light.
The hand-washing procedure is performed in the washing chamber by using the hand-operated valve to extract water from the ЕДВ. Water may be extracted from the ЕДВ (Fig. A-20) by using the manual pump or the blower.
The air and used water from the hand-wash goes through a filter and then follows the same path through the system as the urine, which was described previously. To use the hand-wash, the crew member should position the “Ручн. управ.” (Manual control) switch to the manual control position and depress the “Вентилятор вкл.” (Fan on) and “Разделитель вкл.” (Water separator on) buttons.
When the urine/water storage container is filled, a liquid sensor indicates the presence of water by lighting the “Проскок жидкости” (Presence liquid) indicator light on the waste management/hand-wash control panel (АСУ). When this signal is received, the urine/water storage container must be replaced.
In the off-nominal situation, when the “Проверь разделит.” (Verify separator) indicator light goes ON, it is necessary to switch on the “BKI” toggle switch on the АСУ control panel and continue to use the АСУ and hand-wash.
If the fan should fail (air flow is absent) use of Waste management/handwash is forbidden.
USE OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. Before using the waste management system it is necessary to check if the “Пульт” (Panel) toggle switch on the ACУ control panel is ON.
For urination use the urine collector as follows:
- lift the funnel from the holder;
- remove the lid from funnel;
- set the manual valve (PK) to the “Открыто” (Open) position on the funnel;
- verify that the “Разделит.” (Separator), and “Дозатор” (Dosage) lights on the АСУ are ON;
- verify airflow;
- hold the funnel clear of the body;
- 20-30 sec. after finishing close the manual valve (PK) on the funnel;
- verify that the “Разделит.” (Separator) and “Дозатор” (Dosage) lights on the ACУ are OFF;
- rub the funnel with a washcloth and stow the washcloth in the waste bag;
- install the lid on the funnel;
- put the funnel on the holder.
For urination and defecation use the urine receptacle and the solid/liquid waste collector as follows:
- remove the lid from the funnel;
- without lifting the funnel from the holder, open its hand-operated plug valve (РК);
- verify that the “Разделит.” (Separator) and “Дозатор” (Dosage) lights on the ACУ are ON;
- verify airflow;
- prepare the solid waste collector (take an insert from the package, open the lid, lift the seat, fix a rubber ring on the collector entrance, spread it inside and lower the seat);
- lift the funnel from the holder;
- use the solid and liquid waste collector;
- lift the seat, remove the insert and stow it in the solid waste container;
- rub the seat and funnel with a washcloth and stow the washcloth in the waste bag;
- put the funnel on the holder;
- close the lid on the solid/liquid waste collector;
- close the manual valve (РК) on the funnel;
- verify that the “Разделит.” (Separator) and “Дозатор” (Dosage) lights on the ACУ are OFF;
- install the lid on the funnel.
It is forbidden to use the waste management system if the “Емк урины заполн.” (Urine container filled), “Нет смывной воды” (No flush water), “Консерв. Некачеств.” (Poor quality cons. Agent), “Проскок” “жидкосте” (Presence liquid) lights are ON.
7: Fire detection & suppression system
The fire detection and suppression means includes: SM “Signal” fire detector system, FGB fire detection system, docking module fire detection system, portable fire extinguishers arid rebreather-type masks.
7.1. SM “Signal” fire detection system
The “Signal” system (Fig. A-21) is designed to detect smoke in the SM atmosphere and provide an indication when the transparency of the atmosphere deteriorates by more than 4%. Throughout the program the system is in the standby mode.
The “Signal” system consists of ten smoke detectors, a comparator, fire detector switch, and control panel system. The system smoke detectors are installed on panels and behind the panels which contain high power consumption equipment. Each smoke detector (ДС-1 … ДС-10) consists of an optical chamber with two perpendicularly located infrared sources (primary and test) and two perpendicularly located infrared detectors (primary and secondary). The optical chamber has a protective grid.
During normal conditions (no fire), the secondary (obscuration) infrared detector receives radiation from the primary infrared source and generates a voltage signal which blocks the command output from the comparator to the fire detector switch. The primary infrared detector does not receive infrared radiation from the primary infrared source when the atmosphere is transparent. If responsible for detecting only radiation scattered by smoke particles. The signal generated by the primary infrared detector will increase in proportion to the concentration of smoke particles.
Both signals generated by the primary and secondary infrared detectors are transmitted to the comparator. The comparator forms a resultant signal. The resultant signal is transmitted to the fire detector switch when the transparency of atmosphere deteriorates by morе than 4%. Within the fire detector switch, this signal is amplified and routed to light the “ДЫМ” (SMOKE) LED on the caution and warning panel (ПСС). This is accompanied by an audio signal (beeping). Simultaneously, an LED associated with the smoke detector that detected the fire lights up on the “Signal” system control panel (ПСC), and this information is downlinked to Mission Control Center, Moscow (MCC-M).
The status of the smoke detectors can be monitored by looking at the appropriate LEDs on the “Signal” system control panel (ПУС). The LED for the first detector-activated blinks so that the zone of ignition can be identified. Adjacent to the “Signal” system control panel (ПУС) is a table that maps the smoke detector number to its location within the SM.
Using the test infrared source and the secondary infrared detector, the crew performs a smoke detector test on each smoke detector once every ten days. This is performed by turning the selector switch “Контр. Датчика” (Sensor Test) to the appropriate smoke detector number and depressing the “Контр. Датчика” (Sensor Test) button on the “Signal” system control panel (ПУС).
7.2. FGB fire detection system
The FGB is outfitted with a fire detection system consisting of ten induction smoke detectors (Fig. A-21a). The detectors are designed to detect particles emitted by polymeric materials when they are heated, but prior to combustion.
Each detector consists of an input device, an ionization (charge) chamber, an air duct, a measuring chamber, a blower, and an electronic unit.
Since the smoke particles are lighter than dust, they are separated by an artificially-created eddy flow. Heavier particles in the air are drawn by the centrifugal force to the walls of the ionization chamber, by-pass the sensor and continue to circulate in the total air flow. The smoke particles concentrate along the chamber’s longitudinal axis. While passing through the high voltage ionization chamber, the lighter particles initiate a corona discharge, become charged by it, and form a flow of charged particles which then goes into the measuring chamber. The ion flow is measured by the induction method. The current induced in the measuring chamber circuit is a criterion for evaluation of the smoke particles concentration and, consequently, of the fire hazard.
The detectors send signals to the caution and warning panel ПСС (Fig. В-3) of the SM via the Data collection and the Data processing units.
The detectors have two levels of warning based upon the concentration of smoke particles present.
If the particle count is 2 to 4 times greater than the reference value, a Class 2 SMOKE Alarm is issued.
If the particle count is 4 to 10 times the reference value, a Class 1 FIRE Alarm is issued.
The system is activated/deactivated from the on-board computer system (БВС).
The composition and function of the docking compartment’s fire detection system are identical to that of the FGB.
7.3. Portable fire extinguisher
The portable fire extinguisher (Fig. A-22) is designed to suppress local fires. There are 2.5 kg of a fire-extinguishing substance in the cylinder. When released, the fire-extinguishing substance produces a non-toxic foam that is 40 times the initial volume of the substance. The duration of uninterrupted operation of the portable fire extinguisher is approximately one minute.
The fire-extinguishing substance may be released in two different modes, as a liquid spray and as a foam. An open-cabin fire is extinguished by using the fire extinguisher in the liquid spray mode. If there are no visible flames but smoke is present, the foam mode is used. The extinguisher mode of operation is changed by means of a special foam generating nozzle.
The casing for the portable fire extinguisher is equipped with fabric straps which allows it to be stored in virtually any location. Upon unstowing the portable fire extinguisher, the pin which is connected to the wall is automatically pulled. This allows the preloaded spring and rod to break a glass plug, enabling the transformation of liquid SF6 to the gaseous state as it enters the volume of the piston. As a result of the pressure action of the gas, the piston pumps the fire extinguishing substance into the flexible hose and then into the foam-generating nozzle, when the handle is depressed.
It is forbidden to unstow the portable fire extinguisher and pull the pin, if not required. After the pin is pulled, the useful life of the fire extinguisher is limited to 90 days.
7.4. Rebreather-type gas mask
The rebreather-type gas mask (Fig. A-23) is designed to protect a crew member’s breathing organs and eyes from an atmosphere that is polluted with hazardous contaminants, as in the case of a fire. Protection is also provided in the event of a shortage of oxygen or general atmospheric contamination.
The mask is scored in a sealed container and is used only once. It is always ready for use. The rebreather-type gas mask consists of the mask, a cartridge with an oxygen-containing compound, and a rebreather bag. The mask is connected to the cartridge by a flexible hose.
The cartridge is contained in a thermally insulated case that is attached to the waist by a belt. The starter, a sulphuric acid capsule, and a starting briquette made of aluminium oxide are installed on the cartridge.
To use, the mask must be removed from the container and donned, and the starter lever must be turned 180°. When the starter is turned, the acid capsule is punctured and acid begins to react with aluminium oxide in the starting briquette. The oxygen released by this process provides the initial supply of oxygen to the crew member.
As the crew member continues to breathe, both water vapors and carbon dioxide react with the oxygen-containing compound to produce oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The oxygen produced in this reaction is delivered to the mask and the rebreather bag. Any excess oxygen is vented from the rebreather bag through the relief valve to the cabin.
The service life of the gas mask ranges from 20 to 140 minutes depending on the intensity of the wearer’s activity.
If necessary, the crew member may remove his or her mask, but for no more than 3 minutes. For any longer periods of time, the continuation of the chemical reaction is not guaranteed.
- Emergency vacuum valve
- Valve motor
- Waste management facilities
- Automatic unit
- Water tank
- Multipositional valve
- Onboard computer
- Sensing unit
- Condensate water conditioning columns
- Condensate water purification column unit
- Trace contaminants control unit
- Atmosphere purification unit
- Preliminary dessicant unit
- Distribution and heating unit
- Condensate separation and pumping unit
- Heat exchanger unit
- Flow meter
- Limit switch
- CO2 adsobent fan
- Gas analyzer
- Air-to-air heat exchanger
- Gas-liquid mixture
- Gas-liquid heat exchanger
- Air pressure sensor
- Pressure transducer/alarm
- Conserving agent quality sensor
- Smoke detector
- Water container
- Rodnik status panel
- Research Module
- Integrated Control Panel
- Liquid sensor
- Water valve
- Pressure equalization valve
- Vent valve
- Tunnel pressure monitoring valve
- Pressurization valve
- Potable water container
- Command radio link
- Pressure relief valve
- Non-potable water container
- Solid waste container
- Electromagnetic valve
- Life support Module
- International Space Station
- Diaphragm pump
- Urine collector
- Condensate pump
- Science-power platform
- Vozdukh desiccant bed
- ОС США
- OS SShA
- Orbital Segment, United States
- Pressure relief valve
- Vozdukh two-position valve
- Voltage converter
- Vozdukh molecular sieve bed
- Systems power supply panel
- Atmospheric purification system test panel
- Transfer chamber
- Caution and warning annunciator panel
- ПУ БМП
- PU BMP
- Trace contaminant control unit panel
- Condensate water processor panel
- System control panel
- Atmospheric purification system control panel
- Transfer chamber
- Manual shutoff valve
- Pressure relay
- Manual valve
- Working compartment
- Condensate container
- Water supply system
- Sanitation and hygiene facilities
- Life Support System
- Service Module
- Docking Compartment
- Atmospheric purification system
- Atmosphere control system
- Food supply facilities
- Fire detector system
- Condensate water quality sensor
- Condensate water recovery system
- Thermal Control System
- Solid fuel oxygen generator
- Universal docking module
- Harmful impurities filter
- Functional Cargo Block
- Gas-liquid mixture filter
- Deodorizing filter
- Preliminary purification filter
- Digital/Analog converter
- Mission Control Center, Moscow
- Electromagnetic valve
- Electric heater
- Electric food warmer
List of illustrations
A list of illustrations mentioned in the text. These are stored on an external site.
Appendix A. Figures
- A-1. Russian segment compartments lay-out
- A-2. Russian segment environmental control and life support system ISS
- A-3. Elektron unit flow diagram
- A-4. Solid fuel oxygen generator
- A-5. Solid fuel oxygen generator fan power
- A-6. Vozdukh carbon dioxide removal system
- A-6a. Vozdukh system control panel
- A-6b. Vozdukh system test panel
- A-7. Carbon dioxide absorbent canisters power
- A-8. BMP trace contaminant control unit
- A-9. Harmful impurities filter
- A-10. SM gas analyzer diagram
- A-11. FGB gas analyzer diagram
- A-12. Habitable compartments total pressure measurement diagram
- A-13. An example of tunnel pressure integrity monitoring
- A-14. Russian Segment water supply diagram
- A-15. Filling of water storage container by Rodnik pumping unit
- A-15a. Rodnik water storage system valves panel
- A-16. Water supply from water container
- A-17. Condensate water regeneration system
- A-17a. Condensate water regeneration control panel
- A-18. Electrical food heater
- A-19. On-board refrigerator
- A-20. Waste management and hand-wash diagram
- A-21. “Signal” fire detection system
- A-21a FGB fire detection system diagram
- A-22. Portable fire extinguisher
- A-23. Rebreather-type mask
Appendix B. Figures
- B-I. Integrated control panel
- B-2. Systems power supply panel ППС-23, PPS-23
- B-3. Caution and warning annunciation panel
- B-4. Systems power supply panel ППС-22